The Super Eagles have been drawn to face Lionel Messi’s side for the fifth time in six finals — with the South Americans winning the last four meetings.
Croatia and Euro 2016 surprise packages Iceland, who eliminated England in the first knockout round, are also in Group D.
Chelsea wing-back Moses, a former England Under-21 cap who chose to represent the land of his birth in 2012, said, “We keep getting Argentina for some reason.
“We don’t want to play against Messi, but it is what it is. We’ve got to go and play our football and see what happens.
“After what Iceland did last year (beating England in the last 16 of the Euros), football nowadays, there’s no easy game.
“Argentina are going to be scared of us as well.
“It’s all about football at the end of the day.
Everyone at Chelsea was saying we’re going to get a thrashing and we’re not going to make it through the group stage.
“Hopefully we can go out there and make the nation proud and get out of the group.”
Saturday’s win over Newcastle was Moses’s first start since limping out of the Premier League defeat to London rivals Crystal Palace in September with a hamstring injury.
And he made a triumphant return, setting up Alvaro Morata’s goal before later winning a penalty from which Eden Hazard sealed a 3-1 victory.
Speaking to the BBC, former Tottenham Hotspur star Garth Crooks said, “I must say Chelsea look far more comfortable with Victor Moses back in the side. He not only provides them with far more options, but he can be quite lethal in the opposition’s penalty area.
“Of course, it took an Italian coach to work out that Moses had the potential to be one of the most effective wing-backs in the Premier League, leaving all the other coaches Moses has ever worked with looking rather embarrassed.
“Moses has always been decent, but what Conte has done is convert an ordinary player into an outstanding one. What a pity more coaches can’t do the same.”