The Uruguay striker had levelled the Swede’s previous mark of 156 goals 10 days ago, and turned home Adrien Rabiot’s cutback in the 11th minute at the Parc des Princes.
Cavani celebrated the record by throwing his shirt into the crowd, receiving a booking after shaking hands with the referee and having to take a new jersey from the bench.
It was the 30-year-old’s 27th goal for the Ligue 1 leaders in all competitions this season.
He is PSG’s top scorer this term with three more goals than world-record signing Neymar, who returned to the team for the first time on Saturday since being booed after taking a penalty that could have given Cavani the record in an 8-0 thrashing of Dijon on January 17.
Cavani has now scored 157 goals in 229 matches for the capital side since joining from Napoli for 64 million euros ($79.5 million) in 2013, while Ibrahimovic managed 156 in 180 games during his four seasons in Paris before leaving for Manchester United in 2016.